**PreK-12 Math Committee – ****Belief Statements**

In order to fulfill the Bellingham Promise, we believe mathematics is important for life, career and college readiness, therefore we are committed to:

- Offering all students a coherent, equitable, accessible and challenging mathematics program by ensuring all mathematics teachers have a deep understanding of the content and of what students need to know and be able to do.
- Supporting the success and unique needs of individual students by establishing classrooms where students learn mathematics by using prior knowledge and experiences to practice and apply his/her knowledge. Students learn new concepts by thinking critically, communicating effectively, problem solving actively while striving to be independent learners in an investigative learning environment.
- Using formative assessments to drive instruction through collecting evidence from a variety of sources; to guide instruction and create an accurate picture of student conceptual understanding, procedural skills and application; and by using the results of formative and summative assessments to make program decisions.
- Providing access to technology that will facilitate students’ understanding of mathematics and ensure that students are capable of using technology to explore mathematical concepts.

**Math Materials**

The materials adopted include Bridges in Mathematics and Number Corner published by the Math Learning Center. See the links on the right for more information.

The following learning standard descriptions outline priorities of what we want students to know and be able to by the end of elementary school in mathematics.

## Kindergarten

**Counting & Cardinality**

- Count to 100 by ones and tens
- Write numbers from 0 to 20
- Count to tell the number of objects
- Compare two groups of objects up to 10
- Compare two numerals up to 10

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

- Add and subtract within 10
- Use words, numbers, acting, sounds, and/or pictures to represent addition and subtraction problems to 10
- Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way (e.g. 5+3= 8, 6+2=8)
- For any number 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number
- Fluently add and subtract within 5

**Numbers and Operations in Base Ten**

- Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones and demonstrate understanding using drawings and/or equations

**Measurement and Data**

- Describe measurable attributes in objects, such as length and weight
- Directly compare two objects with a common measurable attribute to see which object has “more of/less of” that attribute to describe the difference
- Classify objects into given categories and count the objects in each category and sort the categories by count

**Geometry**

- Identify and describe shapes – squares, circles, triangle, rectangle, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, spheres – in the environment using names of shapes and describe the relative positions of these objects (above, below…) regardless of their orientation or overall size, as 2D or 3D
- Build and draw shapes

## First Grade

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

- Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems
- Use addition and subtraction with 3 whole numbers within 20
- Understand the commutative property (8+3=11, then 3+8=11) and the associative property (2+6+4 = 2+10=12)
- Understand the relationship between addition and subtraction
- Fluently add and subtract within 10
- Understand the equal sign (=) and determine if equations are true or false
- Determine the unknown whole number that makes an equation true

**Numbers and Operations in Base Ten**

- Count, read, and write numerals to 120
- Understand that the two digits in a two digit number represent tens and ones
- Compare two digit numbers using the symbols (< > =)
- Add within 100 and understand that adding 2-digit numbers means adding tens to tens and ones to ones
- Mentally find 10 more or 10 less than a given number, without having to count
- Subtract multiples of 10 within 10-90

**Measurement and Data**

- Compare three objects by length
- Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units
- Tell and write time to half hour
- Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories

**Geometry**

- Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g. triangles are closed and three-sided) and non-defining attributes (e.g. color, orientation, overall size)
- Compose new shapes from 2D or 3D shapes
- Partition circles and rectangles and describe as halves, fourths, quarters

## Second Grade

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

- Solve and explain multi-step word problems using addition and subtraction within 100
- Fluently add and subtract within 20

**Numbers and Operations in Base Ten**

- Use place value to take apart and put together numbers to 1000 and show numbers in expanded form
- Count within 1000 forward and backward starting at any number
- Skip-count by 5’s, 10’s and 100’s
- Read and write numbers to 1000
- Compare two and three-digit numbers using <, >, and =
- Use effective strategies to solve and explain addition and subtraction problems using two and three digit numbers from 1 to 1000

**Measurement and Data**

- Accurately measure and estimate the length of objects to the nearest whole unit in both standard and metric units
- Use both analog and digital clocks to tell and write time to the 5 minute
- Create and answer questions about picture or bar graphs

**Geometry**

- Use attributes to name and draw shapes
- Identify and draw halves, thirds, and fourths using circles and rectangles

## Third Grade

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

- Interpret products of whole numbers
- Interpret quotients of whole numbers
- Use multiplication/division to solve word problems using different strategies
- Apply multiplication/division understanding with different types of equations
- Apply and understand the different multiplication properties
- Understand division as an unknown factor problem
- Identify and explain arithmetic patterns for addition and multiplication
- Solve 2-step word problems using multiplication/division Fluently multiply and divide within 100

**Numbers and Operations in Base Ten**

- Round numbers to the nearest 10 and 100
- Fluently add and subtract numbers within 1000 using strategies/base 10 algorithms
- Multiply one digit numbers by multiples of 10

**Fractions**

- Understand a fraction is a whole partitioned
- Place fractions on a number line accurately
- Partition a number line into equal fractional parts
- Generate simple equivalent fractions
- Compare fractions with same numerator or same denominator
- Write whole numbers as fractions
- Compare fractions and reason about their size on a number line

**Measurement and Data**

- Tell time to the nearest minute
- Solve and represent elapsed time on a number line
- Measure and estimate liquid volume and mass using grams, kilograms, and liters
- Draw a scaled picture graph and bar graph to represent data
- Generate measurement data to the nearest ¼ inch, and display data on a line plot
- Relate area to operations of multiplication and addition
- Understand concepts of area measurement
- Interpret data on picture graphs and bar graphs
- Use area models to display distributive property
- Use area to solve real world word problems
- Recognize area as an additive
- Find perimeter of polygons

**Geometry**

- Understand the properties of quadrilaterals
- Partition shapes into equal, fractional areas

## Fourth Grade

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

- Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve single- and multi-step problems
- Identify factors and multiples (multiplication and division)
- Use and understand patterns

**Numbers and Operations in Base Ten**

- Understand place value of multi-digit numbers
- Understand place value in order to perform arithmetic

**Fractions**

- Find equivalent fractions and orders/compares fractions
- Add and subtract fractions with conceptual understanding
- Solve fraction word problems
- Multiply a fraction by a whole number and solve related word problems with visual models and equations
- Use decimal notation for fractions with tenths or hundredths as the denominator
- Use visual models to compare decimals and reason about their size

**Measurement and Data**

- Solve problems with measurement and conversion between bigger and smaller units (km, m, cm, kg, g, lb, ml, hr, min, sec)
- Solve word problems with the four operations involving distances, intervals of time, volume, mass, and money.
- Show and use data in a line plot and a table
- Understand concepts of angles and measures angles (geometric measurement)

**Geometry**

- Draw and know types of lines and angles
- Classify shapes by properties of their lines, angles and symmetry

## Fifth Grade

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

- Use parentheses, brackets, braces in numerical expressions
- Evaluate symbols
- Write a simple expression for the given steps
- Generate two numerical patterns given two rules
- Form ordered pairs and graphs on a coordinate plane

**Numbers and Operations in Base Ten**

- Read, write, compare, and round decimal numbers to the thousandths
- Use patterns of the powers to 10, placement of decimal point
- Use place value understanding for rounding to any place
- Use the standard algorithm for multiplying with multi-digits
- Find whole number quotients with four-digit dividends and two-digit divisors
- Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths using models and drawings

**Fractions**

- Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions with unlike denominators and mixed numbers
- Solve word problems using addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division of fractions
- Understand that multiplying by a fraction larger than 1 results in a product greater than the given number
- Understand that multiplying by a fraction less than 1 results in a product less than the given number

**Measurement and Data**

- Convert like measurement units within metric and customary systems
- Represent and interpret data
- Understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition (geometric measurement)

**Geometry**

- Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems
- Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties